إبراهيم أبو منذر: قراءة في “أزهار علي قارعة السراب”

..متغيرات السياق الزمني..

قراءة في “أزهار علي قارعة السراب” مجموعة قصص قصيرة للكاتب/

أ. علي إدريس

الإصدارة الثالثة للكاتب علي ادريس كانت بعنوان” أزهار علي قارعة السراب” حوت مجموعة قصص قصيرة جدا شارك بها في معرض الكتاب بمعرض الخرطوم الدولي منتصف اكتوبر من العام الماضي و كان لي شرف حضور تدشين المجموعة بقاعة إتحاد المصارف، للكاتب إصدارتين قبلها الاولي بعنوان “بعيدا خلف الأستار” مجموعة قصص قصيرة جدا و الثانية ” اوجاع الصياد”مجموعة قصص قصيرة جدا.

أقدام الكاتب راسخة في هذا الفن القصصي، تتميز اعماله بعمق الفكرة و الإحاطة بها في قوالب قصصية لها جمالياتها و تقنياتها.

حاولت في هذه القراءة التركيز علي الابعاد الزمنية و تحولاتها داخل النص.

تتميز الافعال ذات الطابع الحركي و تعددها داخل النص- تتميز – بتمديد المساحة الزمنية.

يقول الكاتب في قصته ” تولي” :

مدّوا إليه (سواعدهم)

قال:

تنحوا جانبا..

شمر عن (ساعده)

ثم..

قفز عاليا.

هنا احداث النص بصيغة الماضي، و إذا دققنا اكثر في هذا الزمن الماضي نلحظ عدة متغيرات طرأت عليه و علي المساحة الزمنية الداخلية للنصو يتسني لنا ذلك بوضوح في الافعال الحركية( مدوا، قال، شمر، قفز) هي اربعة افعال فقط بمقتضي بناء النص و تكثيفه، برغم قلتها إلا انها خلقت مساحة زمنية داخلية”ماضوية” متمددة في باحة النص و لها مقدارها الزمني الحسابي، و هذه المساحة الزمنية تظهر تراتبيا في الحساب الزمني المتخيل بين “مدوا” و حتي “قال” و بين “قال” و حتي “شمر” و بين “شمر” و حتي “قفز”،مجموع هذا الحساب يمثل الزمن الحقيقي الذي استغرقته احداث النص، كما يمكن استنتاج زمنين معنويين الاول في “تنحوا” بتخيل الزمن الذي استغرقه التنحي، و الثاني في “قفز” والزمن الذي استغرقته القفزة.

يقول الكاتب في قصة “كرّة” :

سألهم عن صاحبه..

قالوا:

رحل..

همس له أحدهم:

لا تبتئس، رأيته مختبئاً..

قال:

اين؟..

قال:

تحت السنتهم.

هنا النص مكتوب بصيغة الماضي، الافعال التي ساهمت في بناء النسيج الزمني( سأل، قالوا، رحل، همس، رأي، قال)، الزمن الداخلي الاول للنص هو الزمن الذي استغرقه الحوارالذي دار بين  المفرد و الجماعة”سألهم”، و بين المفرد و المفرد “همس له احدهم” ، اما الزمن الثاني فهو زمن ماضوي متغير قابل للتأويل و ربما يمتد للحاضر و هو الزمن الرابط بين “هو” الغائب و بين الجماعة المختبئ تحت السنتها وهذا الزمن قد يطول حسب المدة التي يلوكون فيها سيرته،  و هذا الزمن يشكل الزمن المعنوي للنص بأكمله.

و في قصة “هروب” يقول :

قال:

عجبت لأولئك المصطفين

ليعبروا..

قال:

ما خطبهم؟..

قال:

كلما عبر احدهم

تعالت صيحاتهم.

هنا النسج الزمني يدفعه السرد بأفعال البناء( قال، عجبتُ،ليعبرو، قال، عبر، تعالت)، والزمن هنا بصيغة الماضي منسوج من زمنين رئيسيين هما زمن الذي يستغرقه الإصطفاف و الزمن الذي يستغرقه العبور، و إذا اضفنا زمن الحوار إلي هذين الزمنين كان الناتج الحساب الزمني الحقيقي للمشهد.

في قصة “مَدْعاة” يقول:

بني لها قصراً بقلبه..

قالت:

لم فعلت!؟ ..

قال:

للجموع التي

سكنت( قلبك).

حوي هذا النص عدة ازمنة و جميعها في الماضي اهمها زمنين الاول ماضي قَبلي و الثاني ماضي بَعدي:الاول و هو الزمن الذي سكنت فيه الجموع قلبها،  و الثاني هو الزمن الذي لها فيه قصرا بقلبه.

ثمة ازمنة معنوية متخيلة و قابلة للتأويل و هي الزمن الذي اسغرقتة الجموع في قلبها و حتي الفراغ من بناء القصر بقلبه،  و الزمن المعنوي المتخيل الذي استغرقه بناء القصر بقلبه، اما زمن الحوار فهو زامن لاحق جري بعد ان سكنت الجموع قلبها و بعد ان بني القصر بقلبه.

قصة”معراج” من القصص المتميزة في المجموعة يقول فيها:

طاف حول (قلبه)

خرج عليهم..

قال:

ما بال يومكم هذا!؟!..

قالو:

ماذا عليه؟..

قال:

يبدو كيوم ولدتني أمي.

في هذا النص أهم الافعال الداعمة للسياق الزمني “طاف، خرج، ولدتني”.

الفعل “طاف” اسسه الكاتب في جملة ايحائية معنوية متخيلة بصيغة الماضي يحمل في طياته الزمن الذي استغرقه الطواف حول قلبه، اما الفعل “خرج” فهو يقبع في نهاية مساحة زمنية بينه و بين نهاية الطواف هذا بالاضافة للزمن الذي تم فيه الخروج نفسه.

الحوار مقتضب و لكن له زمنه الحسابي المضاف لزمن النص ككل.

الجملة :”يبدو كيوم و لدتني امي” منحها الكاتب صياغة تقنية  بإسترجاع الماضي من الماضي إلي الماضي البعيد يوم ولدته امه.

ثمة ازمنة يكتنفها الغموض علي نسق تقني لا يشار إليها صراحة و ترد في النص كقرائن معنوية يقول الكاتب في قصته “جحود”:

همست روحه:

سوف احلق..

قال:

و مالي اراك شاحبة..

قالت:

عرفت منهم أن اسمك

جثة.

هنا النص حوار بين بطل القصة و روحه و هو حوار معنوي تحاذيه صيغة زمنية معنوية.

الغموض يكتنف الزمن الزمن الذي تحول فيه الجسد الحي إلي أن صار “جثة”.

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