الفاتح طه: قراءة في مفهوم الزمن الروائي ١-٣

#عودة_النقد

عن الروايات المعاصرة سيخبرنا الزمن عن احدى امرين، اما الوقوع في اسر الغير مقروء. او ضحية الاسهاب في وصف المعاش، لكن دون حلول. مجرد نقل لليومي بدون اي معالجة.

سنفترض اننا اتفقنا مسبقا على ان الكاتب لا يخلق المعنى، بقدر ما سيعيد خلق علاقات للمعنى بداخل النص. فجميع الموضوعات التي سيتناولها الكاتب قصا او رواية او شعرا، هي موضوعات سابق معناها للوجود من قبل نص الكاتب. و كل ما سيفعله الكاتب هو ان يقوم بايجاد علاقات جديدة، و استنتاج معاني بالنص المكتوب. معاني موجودة مسبقا.
و بالطبع هناك وجود لعمليات ابداعية ممعنة في تخليق العوالم، لكن في النهاية لا يمكن لها الانفصال نهائيا عن الارث الانساني المتراكم.

يقول رولان بارت في حواره مع موريس نادو بصعوبة القبض على هذا الزمن الحاضر. فحين كتابة الرواية، ينفصل الكاتب لفترة من الوقت عن الواقع، بمعناه المتتابع للاحداث. و ستمر احداث و قضايا يكتفي الكاتب بانشاء علاقة سطحية معها، قبل ان ينازع صعوبة استصحابها في النص الذي يكتب الآن. انه لا شعوريا و بسبب انكبابه على حكي ما هو قد مضى و انتهى، ينتهي باقامة قطيعة مع حاضره.

لهذا بارت نفسه يقول بأن “زمن الكتابة زمن ناقص: ان يكتب الانسان يعني اما ان يُسقط او ينهي، و لكن لا يعني مطلقا ان يعبِّر ( … ) فحاضر الكتابة وليد الماضي، وماضيها وليد الماضي البعيد”
ان تأرجح الكاتب بين محاولة رفد العمل بالمعاصرة، و بين الانغماس في العمل حتى يفتقد-هذا العمل، هذه المعاصرة. يرجع الى ان الزمن الذي سنقرأ فيه نص الكاتب هو في الحقيقة زمن ماضي و متجاوز بالنسبة الينا.

هذا لا يعني اننا سنحظي بقطيعة النص لكل ما هو قد مضى، و لا يهمنا اليوم، بقدر ما تعنينا مقدرة الكاتب على عدم الاكتفاء من الكتابة بالمعاصرة و من ثم النقل الحي لما يحدث، بدون اعمال استشفاف للمستقبل. و ذلك بتقديم مشكلات في الرواية، مشكلات هي حاضرة بالنسبة الينا.
ان فعل قراءتنا لمجرد مشكلات نحن مسبقا تجاوزناها في الزمن هو فعل غير مجدي و لا طائل منه، بينما يحدث ان تكون قراءة النص متضمنة لسلسلة علاقات تربط ما بين زمن النص الماضي، ووجوده في الحاضر وصولا للمستقبل. اي اننا لن نمانع قراءة مشكلات سابقة و متجاوزة لزمن وجدت فيه، لكن سنمانع بالطبع غياب الحلول و المعالجة التي يعملها الكاتب في النص، حتى يكون مستصحَبا مع الزمن وصولا الى المستقبل -معنية به حلول هذه المشكلات القديمة.

ان ما يقع فيه الكتاب عادة هو شرك الاكتفاء بالعرض. و عدم الانتباه ان الاعمال التي اعتمدت على نقل الواقع، و من ثم خلدت عبر الزمن قد اعملت ادوات الابداع في جسد النص. بالتالي سيغيب على المعلِن ان فعل العرض يستلزم مستقبلية المنتج و تطوره، و التسويق الجيد هو تسويق القديم في الزمن الحاضر، وذلك باعادة خلق معاني جديدة و معاصرة حاضرة في زمن القارئ، تعمل كمواعين لنقل النص من الزمن الماضي الى المستقبل. و الاهم من كل ذلك انها اعمال ابداعية لا تخلو من تحسسها للحلول، و هو ما سيعني بطريقة ما تحسسها المستقبل.

و بفهم هذه العملية الابداعية يمكننا التفسير لاستمرار القارئ في استعادة قراءات لروايات عالمية، سببها الاول هو الاستمرار في حضور زمن النص-الماضي- في الان، و ربما في المستقبل. هذا ما سيدفع بنصوص بعينها ان تمتص ضربات الزمن، و تنجو مرة بعد مرة وصولا للقارئ في المستقبل.

هذا المفهوم الزمني الغائب يعلل للرواية السودانية حالة الركود لزمن الكتابة الحاضرة، و عدم مقدرته على السريان نتيجة لتجاهله استخلاص الازمان المستقبلية ضمن العملية الابداعية.
ان روايات الحرب و الحب-مثلا، استطاعت النجاة من عمل الزمن عليها، لانها ستشترك في انها و من داخل زمنها الحاضر-المنتهي و المتجاوز بالنسبة للقارئ، تستصحب في بناءها الزمن المستقبلي.
انها لا توصف الحرب فقط، انها توصف ما بعد الحرب، انها توصف السلام، و توصف عالما كان يمكن ليكون لو ان الحرب لم تكن. و ذلك بوصفها في الحاضر عالما “كان” و مازال مليئا بالحروب.

انها اعمال لا تكتفي بابداعات النقل و التصوير و الوصفيات للازمان و الانسان. انها -و هذا ما سيعجز الزمن من تجاوزها، تستصحب زمنا قادم ، زمنا غائب. يحضر فيها الانسان، نفس الانسان الحاضر في الآن، و تغيب عنه الحروب في المستقبل.

عودة_النقد

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