تسنيم خوجلي: الوثائقي السوداني.. متى يفيق من سباته؟

الوثائقي السوداني.. متى يفيق من سباته؟

الخرطوم: تسنيم خوجلي

في سباق الأفلام الوثائقية العالمي، ما زال السودان ساكناً إلا من بضعة خطوات تضفي عليه صفة الحياة، السودان الغني بالقصص والحكايات المختلفة، بلد الثقافات المتعددة، التاريخ، والمساحات التي تنضح بالمناظر الطبيعية الخلابة يعاني من شح واضح في الأفلام الوثائقية، وذلك ليس على المستوى الفني فحسب، بل على المستوى الإعلامي أيضاً، وهذا يعود إلى الوهن العام الذي أصاب جسد السينما السودانية في ظل نظام البشير بحسب ما يرى الخبراء في هذا المجال.

عن الأفلام الوثائقية

يختص هذا النوع من الأفلام بعرض الحقائق العلمية، التاريخية، والسياسية مع اتباع الأسلوب الحيادي في عرض هذه الحقائق، ويحوي  الفيلم الوثائقي سردا تاريخياً لأحداث سجلت في الماضي أو الحاضر القريب متمثلة في الثورات، النكبات والحروب. وما يميز الأفلام الوثائقية عن بقية الأفلام هو أنه لا يتم صناعتها بهدف التسلية أو الترفيه، بل تصنف في غالب الأحيان كمادة علمية يمكن الاستناد عليها في الدراسات والأبجاث، ويعتمد الوثائقي في متنه على الوضوح في الهدف والتركيز والاختصار دون الإخلال بالمحتوى. وهنالك عدد من الأقسام للفيلم الوثائقي تصل إلى 6 أقسام بحسب تصنيف الباحث الأمريكي بيل نيكولس، وهي الفيلم الوثائقي الاستكشافي والوثائقي الشعري وأفلام المراقبة والوثائقي الانعكاسي وأخيراً الوثائقي التمثيلي. وتفصيلاً لما ذكر نجد أن الوثائقي الاستكشافي يستعرض أحداثاً وقعت ويبدأ في استكشافها بأسلوب كلاسيكي من خلال راوي يسرد الأحداث، وتستخدم فيه المقابلات واللقطات الإرشيفية بكثرة، بينما يختص الوثائقي الشعري بإبراز جمالية الصورة المنوعة دون ربطها بقصة معينة. تأتي بعده أفلام المراقبة والتي يضع فيها المخرج أو المعد الكاميرا ويراقب الأحداث عن بعد، وخير مثال لهذا النوع هو أفلام مراقبة الطبيعة. أما فيما يخص الفيلم الوثائقي التشاركي فهو شبيه بفيلم المراقبة الوثائقي ويبقى الاختلاف بينهما في إضافة عنصر الشخصيات. وتفسيرا لمعنى الفيلم الوثائقي الانعكاسي نجد أن صانع هذا الفيلم أو معده يظهر في الفيلم ويصبح بطله ويتحدث أمام الكاميرا. ويأتي أخيرا الوثائقي التمثيلي والذي يقوم على مبدأ تمثيل مشهد أمام عدد من الأشخاص لمعرفة رد فعلهم كما هو الحال في برامج الكاميرا الخفية.

ضعف صناعة السينما

يرى فائز حسن المهتم بالمجال السينمائي ومؤسس منصة كشف، كما له عدد من المقالات النقدية عن الأفلام السودانية وعدد من الحوارات مع صناع الأفلام، يرى في حديثه مع الوراقين أن الأفلام الوثائقية لم تنجو من ضعف الإنتاج العام في القطاع السينمائي، وذلك في ظل غياب الإمكانيات وضعف البنى التحتية التي من شأنها أن تسهل عملية صناعة الفيلم، وكذلك غياب المعاهد والمؤسسات التي تلعب دورا كبيرا في إنتاج الفيلم وصناعته، وأضاف أن الفيلم الوثائقي تحديداً له خصوصيته من حيث الزمن الذي يستغرقه التصوير، مشيرا إلى أنه يحتاج لوقت أطول في بعض الأحيان، كما يحتاج لظروف تصوير معينة كان السودان يفتقر لها أثناء فترة حكم البشير، وبالرغم من ذلك برزت عدد من الأعمال الناجحة والتي وصل صداها للمهرجانات العالمية، كفيلم أوفسايد خرطوم لمخرجته مروة الزين والذي شارك بعدد من المهرجانات السينمائية العالمية، وحصد الأوسكار الأفريقي، وفيلم الحديث عن الأشجار لمخرجه صهيب قسم الباري والذي حاز على على جائزة أفضل فيلم وثائقي في مهرجان برلين ومهرجان الجونة السينمائي، وأشار فائز في حديثه إلى العقبات التي واجهت صناع هذه الأفلام من صعوبات التنقل بالكاميرا وزمن التصوير الذي قد تجاوز العامان حتى رأت هذه الأعمال النور.

الوثائقي والإعلام

يقول الصحفي ادريس عبد الله للورافين إن الوجود الفعلي للأفلام الوثائقية في السودان في فترتي ما قبل ثورة ديسمبر وما بعدها ضعيف، واصفا الإرث التاريخي لهذا النوع من الأفلام بالشحيح للغاية، مستنداً في ذلك إلى قلة الأفلام الوثائقية وندرتها في أحداث تاريخية مهمة في السودان كثورتي 64 و 86، وأضاف أن أغلب الذين قاموا بصناعة الفيلم الوثائقي في السودان كانو من جنسيات أخرى، وأن صناع الوثائقي السودانيين لديهم معيقاتعم التي تحول دون إنجاز عدد وفير من الأفلام، واصفاً ضعف التمويل بأنه المعيق الأكبر أمام تدفق مثل هذه الأعمال في السينما ووسائل الإعلام، وذلك لأنها ليست ذات عائد مادي بحسب ما أفاد، وشدد على ضرورة تضمين ثقافة التوثيق في كليات الإعلام بالجامعات السودانية، لافتاً إلى انخفاض الوعي بالتوثيق وضرورته لدى الشباب الذين ولدوا وترعروا في ظل حكم الإنقاذ.

يكتظ السودان بالكثير من الحكايا التي يتحتم علينا التوثيق لها، لذلك لا بد من تطعيم الأوساط الشبابية المهتمة بقطاع السينما بالورش والمسابقات، والتي من شأنها أن تحفز هؤلاء الشباب ليوقظوا الفيلم الوثائقي من سباته!!

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