علي عزت: صدأ خرائط السلطة؛ أغنية في تأبين الانضباطات

تخيل معي عزيزي القارئ أنك في قلعة فيكتورية يتوسطها برج له نوافذ واسعة  تفتح على الجانب الداخلي لحلقات من الغرف المعزولة، في كل غرفة نافذتان؛ إحداهما تفتح للخارج وتسمح بدخول الضوء، والأخرى تفتح للداخل -في اتجاه البرج- تسمح للجالس في البرج برؤية تحركات الظلال الأسيرة. تسمى هذه الآلة الرقابية الهندسية بـ “البانوبتيكون” أو “المشتمل”، الإشراف  في الترجمة العربية، وتنسب  لعالم القانون والفيلسوف الإنجليزي جيرمي بنتهام.

يناقش ميشيل فوكو في كتابه: “المراقبة والمعاقبة: ميلاد السجن” هذا البناء الهندسي الذي يكتسب  أهميته من نزعة الطابع الفردي للسلطة، وتحويلها لآلة تصنع مفاعيل متجانسة للسلطة وحاملين لها، وبذلك تنتفي الحوجة لاستخدام وسائل الإكراه بالقوة والعنف المباشر بتحويل مفاعيل السلطة لمراقبين على الدوام، مجبرين على السلوك الحسن لاعتقادهم الجازم بأن المراقب يراهم الآن وإن لم يكن يراهم الآن فقد يراهم في أي لحظة آتية.

 في مشتمل بنتهام يتفتت المجتمع إلى أفراد، كل فرد منهم بطل لمسرح صغير ينعكس في عين  المراقب الذي يمكن أن يكون أي أحد (يمكن لأي أحد أن يشغل دور المراقب في هذا التصميم الهندسي)، فالمشتمل لا يقوم على رابطة السيادة بين عاهل/ملك له حق متعالي وسيادة بأمر السماء ورعايا؛ بل على علاقات الانضباط التى تعتمد في المقام الأول على الرقابة الدائمة وفخ الرؤية.

مفعول السلطة هنا يُرى ولا يَرى، موضوع استعلام وكتابة  باستمرار، وممنوع في الوقت نفسه من أن يخلق رابطة اتصال مع مفاعيل السلطة الآخرين بأمر جدران الغرف التى  تشكل فضاءً مغلقاً وحاجزاً متيناً ضد انتقال  الضوء والصوت، والسلطة هنا في وضع انتصار دائم تتفادى كل صدام جسدي أو تمرد جماعي، وهنا أيضاً يبلغ اقتصادها ذروته؛ حيث يقل عدد الممارسين و يتضاعف عدد الممارس عليهم و يتاح للممارِس التدخل في كل لحظة، ويعلم الممارَس عليه ذلك فينتج ضغط ثابت يمنع ارتكاب الأخطاء والجرائم، و تبرز علاقة السلطة بالمعرفة وتُفرض الطاعة بشكل سريع وتلقائي، تٌسجَّل كل لحظة ومن كل جانب لتعرض السلطة نفسها لمراقبة وتحكم وتسجيل مع فرصة للتدخل السريع المدروس. وجد المشتمل بصيغته المجازية السلطوية لا العمرانية فضاءه التجريبي في المدينة الموبوءة بالطاعون، حيث تجري الرقابة مجرى الجراثيم في أوردة المرضى فهم محبوسون في غرف أو عنابر مغلقة مراقبون من كل جانب، تخط عنهم التقارير كل لحظة وتنتقل بين المكاتب الإدارية كل يوم. تزدهر السلطة في فترة الطاعون وتنبعث هياكلها الانضباطية من كل فج  لترسم فضاء الحبس الكبير المصقول بالأعين والأقلام وتمتزج علاقات السلطة والمعرفة وتطلق السلطة صرختها العالية؛ إمّا الخضوع أو الموت، وتكرر التهديد بكثرة وتداعب غريزة البقاء بلا حشمة.

          يرى الفيلسوف الفرنسي إمكانية رد مشتمل بنتهام إلى حديقة الحيوانات التى بناها لوفو في قصر فرساي، زريبة بنتهام البشرية أخذت بالاتساع  في العهد الكلاسيكي  وصارت  تغطي سطحاً يزداد اتساعا يوماً بعد يوم، حتى أصبحت الصيغة العامة في الجيوش والمدارس والمستشفيات، سعى بنتهام لتحويل صيغة الانضباط /الحصار في المؤسسات المغلقة والموجهة  نحو وظائف سلبية (ايقاف المرض، قطع الاتصالات، ايقاف الزمن) لتصبح شبكة أجهزة في تيقظ دائم وفي كل مكان، ولتصبح انضباطات أولية تحسن  عملية ممارسة السلطة وتجعلها أسرع وأخف وأشد فعلاً وأقل تكلفة، ويصف فوكو الصيغة الجديدة بأنها: “مخطط ضغوطات مرهفة لمجتمع مستقبلي مطيع” وبالتالي تنتقل من هيكلة انضباط استثنائي إلى هيكلة مراقبة معممة تنتج مجتمع انضباطي وظيفي، فلا تسعى انضباطات بنتهام  لتحييد  المخاطر وتثبيت الجماهير المضطربة فقط؛ ولكن تلعب دوراً إيجابياً لجلب المنفعة وتنمية الكفاءة وزيادة الانتاجية والأرباح، وتتخلل هذه الانضباطات جسد المجتمع بسلاسة وتنفكك عن طابعها المؤسسي لتصبح وسائل مرنة للرقابة يسهل نقلها وتبنيها، وتتكاتف وتتناوب أجهزة الدولة المرنة كالسجلات الحكومية و الأجهزة الأمنية والشرطية الموزعة بعناية، لتنوب عن سيادة العاهل مع مراكز المراقبة المدنية كالمجموعات الدينية والجمعيات الخيرية على الإشراف الدائم والحضور الكلي والرقابة الدقيقة الشاملة.

وقبل أن نقفز إلى ما بعد فوكو ننوه الى أن وصفه للانضباط لا يتطابق مع مؤسسة ولا جهاز، فهو نمط من أنماط السلطة ونموذج من نماذج ممارستها، يشمل أدوات وتقنيات ووسائل ومستويات تطبيق وغايات، إنها تكنولوجيا السلطة.

 كتاب المراقبة والمعاقبة من أعمال فوكو المبكرة نسبياً ولم يشر إلى المشتمل في محاضرات الكوليج -المتاخرة نوعا ما- ولكن ظل بنتهام النهر الذي يروى عطش فوكو لدراسة علاقات السلطة، و حديقته المخضرة  لدراسة المجتمع، و في أعمال فوكو المبكرة مدخل لتكنيكات المراقبة ومنظر الحوكمة الأول في أعماله المتاخرة، ويصفه في إحدى أعماله التى لم تلقَ نصيبها من الترجمة بأنه أشد نفعاً وأهمية لفهم المجتمع من هيجل وكانط *.

استجابت معظم الدول لجائحة كورونا بفرض حظر تجوال وحجر صحي بمستويات مختلفة ومتغيرة زمانياً في محاولة لإطلاق صرخة: “إما الخضوع أو الموت”،  ورفع العلم الأسود ذو الجمجة والعظمتين في وجه المواطنين، وكسانحة قل ما يجود بها الزمان  لممارسة السلطة الانضباطية والقمعية بحدها الأعلى؛ فُرضت حالة طوارئ على مستوى العالم، توقفت حركة الطيران بين الدول والقطارات بين المدن والبصات في الأحياء، وأُغلقت المرافق الحكومية والشركات الخاصة والمحلات التجارية، وتم حبس المواطنين في منازلهم وطُلب منهم الابتعاد عن بعضهم البعض وارتداء ملابس وملحقات معينة (الكمامات)، وتم أمرهم بالقيام بسلوكيات محددة (غسل اليدين ..الخ)، أيّ تم استدعاء هياكل الانضباط المنظمة ذات الهدف المشترك الواضح من مرقدها، المفاجاة الكبرى أنها فقدت قدرتها الانضباطية، فليس للعطار القدرة على إصلاح ما أفسده الدهر، فبين كسر لحظر التجوال بعفوية صرفة والمظاهرات المنظمة للاعتراض على الحجر الصحي ورفع شعارات الحرية؛ تبخرت مقدرات السلطات على فرض نموذج الحبس الكبير بتكلفة قليلة وبكفاءة عالية،  فبرغم التطورالتكنولوجي ووسائل المراقبة الإلكترونية المتعددة؛ وجدت السلطات نفسها مجبرة على استخدام الأجهزة الشرطية والأمنية وربما الجيوش أيضاً، بشكل مباشر وبتكلفة عالية وفي حالة كر وفر دائماً، وتقدم وتراجع وترنح بين درجات الحظر المتفاوتة زماناً وكيفية، وبفشل متكرر في تطبيق نموذج  المدينة الموبوءة بالطاعون.

 والحديث عن تأبين الانضباطات الذي برز للسطح اثناء جائحة كورونا؛ حال دون فعالية الانضباط المباشر العنيف أو الرقابة المرهفة، وهز السلطة  في ميدانها المفضل “المدينة الموبوءة”.

أجادل بحذر أن ثقافة ما بعد التصنيع  أصبحت حاجزاً يحول دون تجسد الانضباطات في الشكل المؤسسي الصارم المنظم أو الرقابي، بفعالية إضافية لبنية مجتمعات المابعد الحداثة والراسمالية المتاخرة  بتجلياتها المختلفة المنتشرة هنا وهناك، الرافضة للانضباط والمقاومة للرقابة عبر النشاط المدني الحقوقي المدافع عن الحريات، الذي وجد بيئته المناسبة  بعد تآكل نموذج الدولة القومية المتسلطة، دون أن أنفي أن بقايا السلطة الانضباطية على الأفكار والأجساد لازالت متغللة على استحياء، في دور الرعاية والجمعيات والسجلات المدنية والأجهزة الاستخبارتية والهواتف الذكية ومواقع التواصل الاجتماعي، بنموذج دولوزي قائم على الشبكات المشتتة، ولكن بنص ثقافي به براح لرفض هذه الرقابة وتجريمها قانونياً.

يصف  مارك فيشر في كتابه الواقعية الرأسمالية هذا النموذج الخاص بالرأسمالية المتاخرة ويقارنه بالنموذج الفوكوي للانضباط المدرسي، ويشبهه بالتبادل التجاري المعتمد على الربح قريب أو بعيد المدى، فالطالب لن يتغيب عن المدرسة لأنه سيتعرض لعقاب جسدي أو الحبس أو استدعاء أولياء الأمر، ولكن لتأثير ذلك على درجاته مباشرة بالنقصان أو الحرمان من الامتحان، وفي  معرض حديثه عن الرأسمالية المتاخرة أي أن إجبارية التعليم  ترتكز على الحوجة للعمل مستقبلاً، ويشير للحرية النسبية للطالب في اختيار المقرارات التى يرغب في دراستها وأوقات هذه الدراسة فهو مشتري للخدمة التعليمية وله حرية التفاوض في شروطها نسبياً. بينما تجادل هارواي بأن فوكو يحدد شكلاً من السلطة عند لحظة انهيارها، مستصحبة ملاحظة دولوز أن الجداول البيانية الفوكولديانية تصف ما توقفنا أصلاً أن نكونه (نترجمه بأن فوكو يؤرخ لما كانته السلطة الأحيائية في القرن التاسع عشر ومجتمعه  الصناعي) وتضيف أنه تم تفككه من قبل التكنلوجيات الجديدة في النظام الما بعد الصناعي اللامركزي.

نخلص إلى أن الانضباطات لم  يعد بامكانها التوحد في شكل هندسي موحد ولا تشتها في شكل رقابي، وأن بروز مجموعة كبيرة وموزعة بعشوائية من نقاط المقاومة للسلطة والوعي الحقوقي والنضال المستمر؛ إضافة لتغير قواعد اللعبة السياسية الاجتماعية والرأسمالية المتاخرة النموذج، متمثلة في المجتمع ما بعد الصناعي والريغانية (توقف منح  الدولة، فكل خدمة من صحة وتعليم وعلاج نفسي يدفع تكلفتها المواطن، فكما أن دفع الضرائب يستوجب المشاركة السياسية فتوقف دورة الدولة الأمومي يستوجب تهالك سلطتها الانضباطية)، وأي خطوة سلطوية للوراء هي خطوة نحو جسر سقطت أخشابه، أي انتحار لم تملك السلطة بداً من الإقدام عليه للتعامل مع جائحة كورونا.

ننوه أن كاتب المقال يعلم جيداً خطورة فيروس كورونا الصحية والتداعيات الاقتصادية المصاحبة له وهي خارج ما تم مناقشته.

الهوامش

* Foucault, Dits et écrits, vol. 1, p. 1462

المصادر

  • المراقبة والمعاقبة ميلاد السجن ميشيل فوكو ت علي المقلد مركز الانماء القومي بيروت 1990
  • Capitalism And SchizophreniaDeleuze and Guattari 1972/1980
  • Cyborgs and women : the reinvention of  nature 1990
  • Capitalist RealismMark Fisher 2009                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
  • Beyond Foucault: New Perspectives on Bentham’s Panopticon :anneBrunon-ernst2012
  • Thinking Corona measures with FoucaultMatthew Hannahwith Jan Simon Hutta and ChristophSchemann 2020

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  74. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a coworker who had been conducting a little research on this. And he in fact bought me breakfast due to the fact that I found it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending time to discuss this issue here on your internet site.

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  80. This is the right blog for anybody who wishes to find out about this topic. You know so much its almost tough to argue with you (not that I really would want toÖHaHa). You certainly put a new spin on a topic that has been discussed for many years. Great stuff, just great!

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